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NOTE: Each of the pictures on this page is a clickable thumbnail which will open up to a much larger image for detailed viewing. In some cases you will notice differences between the photos and your plans and parts. This is due to changes made during the building of the prototype. I've tried to make note of the changes but if I missed anything please assume that the plans are correct.

Main Wing Outer Panels

BE SURE TO BUILD A RIGHT AND A LEFT PANEL!

Image 1

Image 1

1. The outer wing panels are built on jig tabs directly over the plans. Some means of holding the ribs in position and vertical is recommended to ensure the completed structure is straight and true. If you look closely at Image 1 you will see that my preferred method is to simply cut small squares out of the plan at the jig tab locations and then tack glue the tabs directly to the building surface. I use a square or 1-2-3 blocks to hold the ribs vertical while the glue dries. It is not necessary to tack glue every jig tab but only a few here and there which will serve to hold the entire structure rigid during construction. Start by assembling the sub-leading edge W21 and ribs W7,W9, and W12 over the plan per Image 1.

Image 2

Image 2




2. Add ribs W8, W10, and W11 to the structure as seen in Image 2.

Image 3

Image 3



3. Make up the main spars per Image 3 by combining W17t & W17b each with a 16" length of 1/4" square hard balsa. Spruce can be substituted for hard balsa if you plan to put lots of power up front or pull lots of G's and want the added safety factor.

Image 4

Image 4




4. Add the upper and lower main spars assembled in step 3. Be sure to pull these up tight into the notches in the ribs and make sure the ribs remain accurately spaced and vertical before gluing the spars. (Image 4)

Image 5

Image 5




5. Add the upper and lower W22 rear spars per Image 5. Note that there is a tab that hangs off of the trailing edge of W22 which will be filled with balsa later to carry the aileron horn. These tabs should butt up against the inside edge of rib W10 as shown in Image 6. If you have an older kit your plans may show this tab extending over W10 which is in error.

Image 6

Image 6



Image 7

Image 7








6. Dry fit rib W6B in place (do not glue) and then install the two W18 shear webs per Image 7. Both W18's should be firmly glued to W17t and W17b as well as rib W7 but be careful not to glue in W6b at this time.

Image 8

Image 8




7. Install W19 but only glue it to rib W7 and to the upper W22 at this time. W19 should be flush to the top of W22 per Image 8. Notice that the root end of W19 is cut to allow W6b to install at the proper dihedral angle so be sure not to install it upside down!

Image 9

Image 9




8. Once again dry fit rib W6b in place and check that the notches provided for both W22's are accurate. I had to extend the upper notch rearward slightly to allow for a good fit. Next glue W6b to the main spars and to both W18's but do not glue to W22 yet. Lay some sort of straight edge against the top of the upper W22 per Image 9 to make sure that it does not sag at the root end. Because W6b has no jig tab it is quite easy to install it with a twist if not careful. Once you are satisfied that W22 is nice and straight go ahead and glue W6b in place making sure that it is pressed tight up against W19 as well. Finally, go back and glue the lower W22 to W19. Thin CA with a long tip extender works great for getting into the tight spaces. I know this is a relatively complex assembly sequence but time spent getting it accurate will pay off when joining the wing sections later.

Image 10

Image 10


9. Place a straight edge along the centerline of rib W6b to make sure it is not warped and then glue the leading edge to W21. (Image 10) As can be seen in Image 11, I had to extend W21 with a piece of 1/8" square balsa in order to get a good fit. Once again, time spent making sure that W6b is straight and true will be worth the effort later.

Image 11

Image 11

10. Make up a wing skin for the top of the panel from 3/32" balsa. Go ahead and make two as you will need one for the other panel as well. Be sure to make a left and a right! Block sand the structure of the panel to prepare it for the sheeting.



11. It may be necessary to add a thin cap of balsa to the top of W13 to bring it up level with the ribs and other surrounding structure. This is clearly visible on my airplane in Image 12. Simply glue on a thin strip of balsa and block sand to blend it in. This techique can be used anywhere you need to build up the structure in order make a smooth base for the wing skin. Time spent here will result in a much more precise wing skin without low or high spots.

Image 12

Image 12


12. Attach the top wing skin to the panel and weight the sheeting with sandbags, old magazines, etc. (Image 13) Note that I have only extended the top sheeting to the center of W22. The remainder of the top sheeting will be added later. It is recommended that you block up the trailing edge of rib W6b to prevent it from twisting when weighting the top skin.

Image 13

Image 13


13. At this point the panel can be removed from the building board. Carefully break off the jig tabs and clean up the structure with a sanding block.

Image 14

Image 14


14. Using parts WS7, WS9, & WS12 create a wing saddle jig as shown in Image 14. This saddle will maintain the proper washout while adding the remaining structure and the bottom wing skins. Note that you will have to assemble the jig for the right wing panel over the left wing plan and vice-versa.



15. Place the wing panel in the saddle and weight it down. Add the 1/16" balsa shear webs to the back of the main spars as well as the front face of the W22's per the plan and Images 15 & 16. There has been much debate as to whether there is any advantage to having the grain vertical rather than horizontal when using a balsa web. Most of the kits I have built have called for vertical and it makes sense to me to have them as such. However, I doubt the strength of the structure would be compromised if they were run grain horizontal.

Image 16

Image 16

Image 15

Image 15







16. Install doublers W9a and W10A to their respective ribs per the wing plan.




17. Add the aileron servo hatch mount W23. This should fit between ribs W9 & W10 and be down tight against the W9a and W10a doublers. (Image 17).

NOTE: If you are replacing the 3/32" wing sheeting with 1/16" to save weight then step 18 can be omitted. Simply use the 1/16" thick AH1 & AH2 parts by themselves.

18. Find the four AH1 plywood parts and the four AH2 plywood parts. There should be two of each from 1/16" plywood and two of each from 1/32" plywood. Laminate together one each of the 1/16" parts and the 1/32" parts to create two sets of servo hatches and frames that are a total of 3/32" thick. Once again make sure to make a right and a left when laminating the AH1 parts.

19. Install the servo hatch AH1 on to W23 as shown in Image 18.



20. Put the hatch frame AH2 in place around AH1 and CAREFULLY tack glue it to W23. DO NOT GLUE AH1 TO W23! Once AH2 is tack glued in place remove AH1 and then go back and final glue AH2. (Image 19).





NOTE: The next 6 steps cover the installation of the flap servo tray and hatch cover. These items are not necessary if you do not intend to add the flaps. However, if you think you might want to install the flaps at some point in the future it is recommended that you go ahead and make provision for the servos now. If you are certain that you don't want to add the flaps now or later then please skip to Step 27.



21. Glue ribs FL1 & FL2 together as shown in Image 20. Go ahead and make up two sets, one for each wing panel, making sure to create a left and a right hand set.



22. Glue doubler FL3 to rib W7. (Image 21)

23. Use FL4 as a template to set the spacing and install the FL1/FL2 assembly created in step 21. Do not glue FL4 at this time.

24. Cut and install the two 1/8" x 3/8" Birch plywood servo mounting rails as shown in Image 22. Please note that the photo of my prototype differs in that I had not yet installed FL1 at this point.

25. Permanently install FL4 at this time. FL4 fits between FL1 & W7 and sits down tight against FL2 & FL3 in exactly the same manner as W23 was installed for the aileron servo hatch.





26. Bolt the FL21 hatch cover in place on FL4 and then carefully tack glue the FL20 frame around it. Be sure you don't accidentally glue FL21 in place! Remove FL21 and final glue FL20 to FL4. (Image 23)




27. Add a scrap balsa block to carry the receptacle for the pitot tube. (See wing plan) This is only necessary on the right wing panel. (Image 24)




28. Block sand and otherwise prepare the panel for the bottom wing skin. Make up a posterboard template as shown in Image 25 to locate the cut outs necessary to fit around the servo hatches. Start by making the cut outs oversize, placing the template on the wing panel, and then using strips taped in place to determine the final shape. Once satisfied with the fit of the template use it to create the bottom wing skin. Be sure to extend the sheeting about 1/2" aft of the trailing edge of the ribs. This excess will be trimmed and beveled to final shape in step 30.


29. Make sure the panel is accurately located in the saddle and then glue and weight the bottom sheeting in place. Once dry remove the panel from the saddle and sand off the excess sheeting. (Image 26)



30. Use a long sanding block and taper the trailing edge of the bottom wing skin to match the ribs as shown in Image 27.






31. Make up the trailing edge sheet to complete the top skin. Use a masking tape hinge along the seam to hold the sheet in position and allow you to fold it up out of the way while you apply glue to the structure. (Image 28)



32. In order to maintain a straight trailing edge it is recommended that the panel be weighted down on the building board as shown while the glue dries on the final trailing edge sheet. Image 29.

33. Make up the leading edge from 1/4" sheet balsa and the wing tip from a 1" thick balsa block. Attach and sand them to shape.





Please proceed to the flap installation page at this time if you will be adding the flaps. Otherwise, continue below with the construction of the ailerons.








34. Locate the supplied Aileron Template A and use it to mark out the location of the aileron on the wing panel. You will need to mark both the top and bottom of the wing. Use the wing plan as a guide for locating the template accurately. (Image 30)



35. Measure over 9/32" from the outboard edge of Aileron Template A to locate Aileron Template B as shown in Image 31.



36. Carefully remove the sheeting between the lines as shown in Image 32 on both the top and bottom of the panel.





37. Use a razor saw to carefully cut through the ribs as seen in Image 33.







38. Cut through the sheeting on either end of the aileron using a razor saw or exacto knife to free it from the main structure. (Image 34)





39. Open up the cut out to its finished size with a sanding block or by whatever means you choose. (Image 35)





40. Add the 1/4" balsa t.e. cap W24 as well as the 1/8" scrap balsa end cap and sand to shape. (Image 36)





41. Sand the aileron down to the marks in preparation for adding the leading edge and end caps. (Image 37)

42. Use a wedge of scrap balsa to fill the area of the aileron where the control horn will be attached. See the wing plan for details.



43. Attach the 1/4" balsa aileron leading edge W25 piece, cap each end of the aileron using 1/8" scrap balsa, and then sand to final shape. (Image 38)





44. Mark a centerline on the l.e. of the aileron and then bevel as shown to allow for deflection. See the section view on the wing plan for a detailed drawing. (Image 39)




45. Mark and cut the slots in the aileron for the CA type hinges as shown in Image 40 and then cut the correlating slots in W24 as shown in Image 41.











46. Temporarily install the aileron and then cut & fit a wedge of scrap balsa to fill the gap remaining at the root end. NOTE: This wedge attaches to the wing and NOT to the aileron. (Image 42)

46. Add the servo mounts consisting of parts ST1, ST2 (x2), & ST3 to hatch cover AH1. See the wing plan for a detailed drawing. The two views shown in Image 43 are also provided for reference. NOTE: Be sure to make a right & a left!













That completes the construction of the outer panel. Assuming you have built both of them (And you remembered to make a right and a left!) please click the "next" button below to go to the section on joining the wing.